Dental extraction is the removal of a tooth from the oral cavity. Tooth extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons like tooth decay which has damaged enough tooth structure to render the tooth non-restorable, some permanent teeth to make space for orthodontic treatment.
Why a tooth is extracted?
Severe tooth decay or infection. Despite the reduction in worldwide prevalence of dental caries, still it is the most common reason for extraction of teeth with up to two thirds of extractions.
Extra teeth which are blocking other teeth from coming in.
Cosmetic teeth of poor appearance, unsuitable for restoration
Severe gum disease which may affect the supporting tissues and bone structures of teeth.
In preparation for orthodontic treatment (braces)
Teeth which cannot be restored endodontically
Supernumerary, supplementary or malformed teeth
Teeth in the fracture line
Receiving radiation to the head and neck may require extraction of teeth in the field of radiation.
Reduced cost compared to other treatments
Types of tooth extraction
Simple tooth extractions are performed on teeth that are visible in the mouth, usually under local anesthesia, and require only the use of instruments to elevate and/or grasp the visible portion of the tooth. Typically the tooth is lifted using an elevator, and using dental forceps. Typically, when teeth are removed with forceps, slow, steady pressure is applied with controlled force.
Surgical tooth extractions involve the removal of teeth that cannot be easily accessed, either because they have broken under the gum line or because they have not erupted fully. Surgical extractions almost always require an incision. In a surgical tooth extraction we may elevate the soft tissues covering the tooth and bone and may also remove some of the overlying and/or surrounding bony tissue with a drill or osteotome. Frequently, the tooth may be split into multiple pieces to facilitate its removal.